Troy Brauntuch



Born 1954 in Jersey City, New Jersey

Lives and works in Austin, TX


1975 B.F.A., California Institute of the Arts, Valencia

2010 Capitain Petzel Gallery, Berlin

2009 Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York

2008 Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York

2007 Magasin – Centre National d’Art Contemporain, Grenoble
Mai 36 Galerie, Zurich

2006 Mai 36 Galerie, Zurich

Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York

2004 Shane Campbell (BOOM) Gallery, Chicago
Suburban Gallery, Chicago

2003 Mai 36 Galerie, Zurich

2000 Mai 36 Galerie, Zurich

1997 Galerie Rainer Borgmeister, Berlin
Mai 36 Galerie, Zurich

1994 Mai 36 Galerie, Zurich (cat.)

1992 Thomas Solomon’s Garage, Los Angeles

1990 Liliane & Michel Durand-Dessert, Paris
Kent Fine Art, New York

1989 Michael Lord Gallery, Milwaukee
The Living Room, Amsterdam

1988 Kent Fine Art, New York

1986 Larry Gagosian Gallery, Los Angeles

1985 Mary Boone Gallery, New York (Cat.)

1984 Akira Ueda Gallery, Tokyo

1983 Mary Boone Gallery, New York
Galerie Schellmann and Klüser, Munich

1982 Mary Boone Gallery, New York

1981 Metro Pictures, New York

1979 The Kitchen, New York


2009 The Pictures Generation, 1974-1984, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Images et (re) presentations. 1980s-part two, Le Magasin, Grenoble
Several Silences, The Renaissance Society, Chicago

2008 Kunst Im Heim, Capitain Petzel Gallery, Berlin
I can see for miles, Thomas Solomon Gallery, Los Angeles
Blasted Allegories works from the Ringier Collection, Kunstmuseum, Luzern Museum of Art Lucerne, Switzerland
Atelier 2008: Selections from the Art and Art History Faculty at the University of Texas at Austin,
Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, Texas

2007 USB Openings: Drawings from the USB Art Collection, Tate Modern, London
Currents: Recent Acquisitions, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington DC
Early Retirement, Mai 36 Galerie, Zurich

2006 Whitney Biennial 2006: Day for Night, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
Dark Places, Santa Monica Museum of Art, Santa Monica
Drawing from the Modern 1975-2005, Museum of Modern Art, New York
The Downtown Show, Grey Art Gallery, New York

2005 Merit Badge, curated by Jason Middlebrook, Craryville
Springtide, Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

2004 Troy Brauntuch, Keith Edmier, Richard Phillips, Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York

2003 The Eighties – Part II: USA, Galerie Bernd Kluser, Munich

2001 Pictures, An Exhibition, Artist Space, New York
Brooklyn Collects, Brooklyn Museum of Art, Brooklyn

2000 Rosenwald – Wolf Gallery, University of The Arts, Philadelphia
Modern Art Despite Modernism. Museum of Modern Art, New York (Robert Storr, Curator)
Faculty Exhibition, Blanton Museum, Austin, Texas

1999 Texas Draws, Museum of Contemporary Art, Houston, Texas
Faculty Exhibition, Blanton Museum, Austin, Texas

1998 Fast Forward, Kunstverein in Hamburg, Hamburg

1997 Galerie Rainer Borgemeister, Berlin

1995 Glaube-Hoffnung-Liebe-Tod, Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna

1993 Brauntuch-Fries-Ruff-Schiess, Mai 36 Galerie, Zurich

1991 Persona, Kent Fine Art, New York
The Library, Josh Baer Gallery, New York (curated by Douglas Blau, catalogue text by
Mr. Blau)
1991: Art on Paper, Weatherspoon Art Gallery,
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
American Art of the 80’s, Palazzo delle Albere, Trento

1990 Postcard from America, Frietes Galeria, Caracas
Art Meets Science and Spirituality in a Changing Economy, Museum Fodor, Amsterdam
(curated by Fred Wagemans)

1989 Inside World, Kent Fine Art, New York, (curated by Thea Westreich)
Prospect ‘89, Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt
Nocturnal Visions in Contemporary Painting, Whitney Museum of American Art at
Equitable Center, New York
A Forest of Signs: Art in Crisis of Representation, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
The Observatory, Thomas Solomon’s Garage, Los Angeles
Image World: Art and Media Culture, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
Romance and Irony in Recent American Art, Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth

1988 Drawn from Life: The Physical and Cultural Landscape of the ’80s, College of the Mainland Art Gallery,
Texas City
Art for Your Collection, Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence

1987 Calarts: Skeptical Belief(s), Renaissance Society, Chicago, The Newport Harbor Museum,
Newport Beach
Subtext, Kent Fine Art, New York
Fictions, Kent Fine Art and Curt Marcus Gallery, New York

Sable Castelli Gallery, Toronto Rounding Up the Usual Suspects, Fay Gold Gallery, Atlanta

Minimal Representation, Jan Baum Gallery, Los Angeles

1984 Modern Expressionists, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York
An International Survey of Contemporary Painting and Sculpture, Museum of Modern Art, New York
A Decade of New Art, Artists Space, New York
The New Expressionism, Aldrich Museum, Ridgefield, Connecticut
Drawings, Mary Boone Gallery, New York
Drawings After Photography, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, Ohio, Dart Gallery, Chicago
Content, Hirshorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D. C.
American Still Live 1945-1983, Neuberger Museum, Purchase, New York

1983 Big American Figure Drawings, School of Visual Arts, New York
Modern Objects, Barbara Toll Gallery, New York
New York Now, Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen, Düsseldorf
Modern Nude Paintings: 1880-1980, National Museum of Art, Osaka, Japan
Mary Boone and her Artists, Seibu Museum, Tokyo
American Still Life, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston
New Art, Tate Gallery, London
New Editions, Pace Gallery, New York
Paintings, Mary Boone Gallery, New York
Back to the USA, Kunstmuseum Luzern, Lucerne

1982 Mary Boone Gallery, New York
Drawings: New Directions, Summit Art Center, Summit, New Jersey
Art and the Media, Renaissance Society, Chicago
Figurative Images: Aspects of Recent Art, Georgia State University, Atlanta
Body Language, University Art Gallery, San Diego State University
Documenta, Kassel, Germany
La Biennale di Venezia, Venice
Drawings, Blum Helman Gallery, New York
New York Now, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
New Figuration in America, Milwaukee Museum of Art
Figures of Mystery, Queens Museum, Queens, New York
En International Samlung, Stiftelsen Karlsvik 10, Stockholm

1981 II Gergo inquieto, Museo di Sant’ Agostino, Genova
Westkunst: Heute, Cologne
Return to Artists Space, Artists Space, New York
Figurative Aspects of Recent Art, Hayden Gallery, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
U.S. Art Now, Konsthallen, Goteborg, Sweden
Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York

1980 Annina Nosei Gallery, New York
Drawings, Mary Boone Gallery, New York
Metro Pictures, New York
New Talent/New York, Gallery of Contemporary Art, Cleveland
Drawings and Paintings on Paper, Annina Nosei Gallery New York

1979 Hal Bromm Gallery, New York
Recognizable Images, Studio Cannaviello, Milan
Re: Figuration, Max Protetch Gallery, New York

1977 Pictures, Artists Space, New York

1976 Hallwalls, Buffalo, New York


2009 Amber, Villas,Editors pick 2009 in Review: Troy Brauntuch at Friedrich Petzel Gallery, Gallery Exhibitions Dec.29,2009.
Scott,K Andrea,Critics pick Best of Non Museum exhibitions 2009 New Yorker online Magazine Dec.14, 2009.
Arah H. Merijan,Troy Brauntuch Review Friedrich Petzel Gallery exhibition,Art in America International Dec. 2009 issue pgs. 138-39 (ill.).
Mullican, Matt Best of 2009 Artist Pick pg.97 Artforum International Dec. 2009 issue.
Vince Aletti, Best of 2009 Critics Pick pg.186 (ill.) Artforum International Dec. 2009 issue.
Ewing,John, Art Lies Contemporary Art Quarterly issue 64, Troy Brauntuch New York Review Friedrich Petzel Gallery exhibition,Dec. 2009.
Beck, Graham T., Review Troy Brauntuch at Friedrich petzel Gallery, Frieze International,Nov-Dec.2009 issue, pg. 145 (ill.)
Robert Pincus-Whitten, Review Troy Brauntuch at Friedrich Petzel Gallery exhibition, Artforum International, Nov. 2009 issue pgs. 230-231 (ill.)
Scott, K Andrea, “Critics Notebook, Darkness Rising”, The New Yorker Oct. 12,2009 issue pg. 14.(ill.)
Sholis, Brian, “Critics Picks: Troy Brauntuch”, Artforum Online, September 23, 2009 (ill.)
Eklund, Douglas. “The Pictures Generation”, 1974-1984, Yale University Press, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2009 (ill.)
Fowl, Kate “The Pictures Generation 1974-84”, Frieze Magazine, Issue 124, June-August 2009
Yablonsky, Linda. “Photo Play”, Art in America, April 2009
Cotter, Holland. “At the Met, Baby Boomers Leap Onstage”, The New York Times, April 23, 2009
Cotter, Holland. “Framing the Message of a Generation”, The New York Times, May 29, 2009
Ewing, Margaret,“Critics Picks”:" Several Silences", The Rennaisance Society,Chicago
Online, 2009
Frenzel, Sebastian, “Zu cool fuer diese Welt”, Monopol, no. 4/2009, April 2009, pp.
“Images et (re) presentations. 1980s – part 2.” Publication Magasin, Grenoble 2009.

2008 Kinsella, Eileen, “Back in the Spotlight’, ARTnews, November 2008, pp. 130-135 (ill.)
Ruf, Bestrix, ed., “Blasted Allegories’, Works from the Ringier Collection, JRP/Ringier, 2008
Berardini, Andrew, “Cottage Industry”,, July 2008
Komis, Bmitry, “Troy Brauntuch at Friedrich Petzel Gallery, Flash Art, Volume 41, July-Sept 2008, p.261
Crimp, Douglas, “About Pictures – Pictures as Representation as Such”, Flash Art, Volume 41, July – Sept, 2008, pp. 131-133 (ill)
“Goings on about town: Art – Troy Brauntuch”, The New Yorker, May 7, 2008
Saltz, Jerry, “New York Cannon”, Art Net Magazine, April 23, 2008
Mueller, Kurt, “Troy Brauntuch”, Atelier 2008: Selections from the Art and Art History
Department at The University of Texas at Austin, 2008, pp. 1-2, (ill.)
Logan-Barmeyer, Mary, “Artist Q&A With Troy Brauntuch”, Paper Magazine online, (ill.) May 13, 2008

2007 Davies, Lillian, “Critic’s Picks: Troy Brauntuch”, Art Forum online, August 21, 2007 (ill.)
‘USB Openings: Drawings from the USB Art Collection, Tate Modern, Exhibition book
“Seven Things We Noticed at the Armory Show”, New York Magazine online, February

2006 Taylor, Marvin J., ed, “The Downtown Book: The New York Art Scene 1974 – 1984”, Princeton University Press, New York, 2006
“Dark Places”, Exhibition Catalog, Santa Monica Museum of Art, 2006
Hainley, Bruce, “Artquake”, The New York Times Magazine, October 1, 2006, p.82
Eleey, Peter, “2006 Whitney Biennial”, Frieze, June/July/August 2006, pp. 256-257
Kunitz, Daniel, “Whitney Biennial 2006- Day for Night”, ArtReview, May/June 2006, p.
Myers, Terry R. “Freezer Burn”, Modern Painters, May 2006 pp. 102, 103
Finch, Charlie, “Whitney Biennial v. Everglades”, Artnet, March 27, 2006
Schjeldahl, Peter. “Of the Moment”, The New Yorker, March 20, 2006 p.34
Iles, Chrissie & Vergne, Philippe, Whitney Biennial 2006: Day for Night, pp. 186-187,
10-11 2006.
Scott, Andrea K., “Dark Days”, Time Out New York, March 9-15, p.59
Kimmelman, Michael, “Biennial 2006: Short on Pretty, Long on Collaboration,”
New York Times March 3, 2006, pp. E31, E 39, 2005

2005 Vogel, Carol, “This Whitney Biennial Will Take In the World,” New York Times,
Nov 3, 2005.
Kantor, Jordan, Drawing from the Modern, The Museum of Modern Art, 2005, p. 104
Yood, James. “Troy Brauntuch,” Artforum International, March, p. 242

2003 Artforum International (40th anniversary issue- 1980s- part one.) various authors.
March, pp. 54, 70, 101, 104, 108, 134, 238, 260.
Rimanelli, David. Artforum International (40th anniversary issue- 1980s part two.)
“Time Capsules 1986 – 191990 .” April, pp. 91, 106, 108.
Arlitt, Sabine. “Malerei unter Schock.” (review of one man exhibition, Galerie Zuerich)
Tages – Anzeiger (Swiss Newspaper) Zuritipp, 18. – 24. April, S. 4
Isles, Chrissie. “Vanishing Act.” Artforum International, May, pp. 23 – 24
Neue Zuericher Zeitung, (Swiss Newspaper), author unknown. “Mickey Schläft –
Troy Brauntuch in der Galerie Mai 36” (translation: “Mickey Sleeps – Troy Brauntuch in Mai 36 Gallery”) April 2003, p42.

2002 Smith, Roberta. “Technology as a Muse, a Hazard and an Ally.” New York Times,
August 16., p. B 39
Hertz, Richard. Jack Goldstein and the Cal Arts Mafia. Interview chapter with Troy

2001 Reust, Hans Rudolf. “Troy Brauntuch” (Review of one man exhibition Galerie Zuerich)
Artforum International, April, 2001
Smith, Roberta. “When Photography Becomes Postmodern.” New York Times, June
Rimanelli, David. “Sign of the Times” Artforum International, October, pp. 130– 132.
Rothkoff, Scott. “Hit or Miss.” Artforum International, October, pp. 133 – 134
Bankowski, Jack. “10.20.30. October 1981.” Artforum International, October, p. 60

2000 Storr, Robert. Modern Art Despite Modernism (Book published in conjunction with
Museum of Modern Art exhibition of the same name, curated by Robert Storr.) pp. 94,
Smith, Roberta. “Modern Art Despite Modernism” New York Times, September, C. 35.
Tomkins, Calvin. “Her Secret Identities.” Profile of Cindy Sherman, May 15, pp. 77-78.

1999 Herbert, Lynn. Texas Draws. (publication in conjuction with the exhibition of the same
name at the Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Texas.)

1998 5000 Artists Return to Artists Space: 25 Years (Survey of the History of Artists Space,
New York, Claudia Gould and Valerie Smith, Editors)
Oxford History of Art, The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology. Edited by
Donald Preziosi. “The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theorie of Postmodernism” by
Craig Owens, 1980. Text reproduced pp. 315, 316.

1995 Tarantino, Michael. “Troy Brauntuch.” Noema, Art Journal, Summer.
Suprenant, Anne. “Troy Brauntuch.” Exhibition Catalogue, MAI 36 Galerie Zuerich
Decter, Joshua. “Troy Brauntuch.” Exhibition Catalogue, MAI 36 Galerie Zuerich

1992 Humphrey, David. “Troy Brauntuch.” Art Issues
Davies, Lillian, “Grenoble”,
Art in Theory 1900 – 1990 An Anthology of Changing Ideas, ed. by Charles Harrison, Paul Wood,
pp. 1053f.

1991 Dector, Joshua. “Troy Brauntuch.” Arts, February, p. 105.
Woodward, Richard B. “Troy Brauntuch: Kent Fine
Art.” Artnews, February, p. 135.
Smith, Roberta. “Art in Review: The Library.” New York Times, June 14, p. C24.
Jenkins, Nicholas. “The Library: Josh Baer.”
Artnews, Octobor, p. 133.

Murray, Kevin. “Romance and Irony.” Art and Text,

May 20, pp. 129-30.
Brenson, Michael. “Troy Brauntuch.” New York Times, November 30.
“Troy Brauntuch.” New Yorker, December 17.

1989 Decter, Joshua. “Troy Brauntuch: Kent Fine Art.” Flash Art, January / February
Mahoney, Robert. “Troy Brauntuch.” New York Times, Arts, January.
Woodward, Richard B. “Troy Brauntuch: Kent Fine Art.” Art News, January, pp. 131-132.
Knight, Christopher. “ A Photographic Observatory.” Los Angeles Herald Examiner, June 16, p. 34.
Taylor, Rob. “Romanticism with a Aink in Diverse Shed 11 Selection. “The Dominion, November 22.
Barrie, Lita. “US Artists Twist Nostalgic Convention.” NBR Weekend Review, December 1.
A Forest of Signs: Art in the Crisis of Representation. Exhibition catalogue, Museum
of Contemporary art, Los Angeles. Essays by Richard Koshalek, Ann Goldstein, Mary Jane Jacob,
Anne Rorimer, Howard Singerman. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: MIT Press.
Image World: Art and Media Culture. Exhibition Catalogue, Whitney Museum of American Art,
New York. Essays by Marvin Heiferman, Lisa Phillips and John G. Hanhardt.

1988 McGill, D. “Excavating Art .” New York Times, December 18.
“Fictions: A Selection of Pictures from the 18th , 19th and 20th Centuries.” Print
Collector’s Newsletter, February.
Cooper, Dennis. “Fictions.” Artforum International, March.
Caley, Shaun. “ Fictions: Scenarios of Concentration,” Flash Art, March / April.
Harbison, Robert. ”Douglas Blau’s Fictions.” C Magazine, no 18, June, pp. 34 – 41.
Grout, Catharine. “El Culto de las imagenes.” Figura, pp.11 – 14
Brooks, Rosetta. “Troy Brauntuch: Life After Dark.” Parkett, no. 11, pp. 6 – 15.
Blau, Douglas. “The Noun Effaced ; Finish and the Unfinished Phrase.” In Troy
Brauntuch , exhibition catalogue, Mary Boone Gallery, New York, February 2 – 23
Glueck, Grace. “Troy Brauntuch.” New York Times, February 15, p. C30
Pincus, Robert L. “Minimal View of New York.” San Diego Union, August 18, pp. E1 – 2

Glueck, Grace. “A Neo – Expressionist Survey That’s Worth a Journey,” New York Times, July 22 pp. H25, H28.

Levin, Kim. “The Familiar and the Sublime.” Village Voice, September 11, p. 77.
Millet, Catherine. “L’Intraditude de l’art.” Art Press, October, pp. 4 – 12.
Gibson, Eric. “American Still Life.” New Criterion, October, pp. 70 – 75.
Alhadeff, Gini. “Arte piu moda.” Uomo Vogue, October p. 389.
“Art After Modernism: Rethinking Representation.” Book of critical essays. Edited by Brian Wallis
Starenko, Michael. “What’s an Artist to Do?: A Short History of Postmodernism and Photography.” Afterimage, January, p. 4.
Glueck, Grace. “Art: ‘Figures of Mistery’ Shows New Work by 10,” New York Times, January 7, p. C20
Preston, Malcolm. “Art Review: Mistery in Queens.” Newsday, January 7.
Becker, Robert. “Troy Brauntuch.” Interview, February, pp. 72 – 73.
Glueck, Grace. “Art: Big American Figure Drawings.” New York Times, March 18, p. C23
Schwartz, Eugene.”Guerilla Tactics for Collectors in Today’s Emerging Art Market.”
Bottom Line, October 30, pp. 9 – 10
Cohen, Ronny. “The New Graphic Sensibility Transcends Media.” Print Collector’s Newsletter, November / December, p. 173.
Brody, Jacqueline. “Troy Brauntuch.” Print Collector’s Newsletter, November/December, p. 173.

1982 Owens, Craig. “Back to the Studio.” Art in America, January, pp. 99 – 107
Fox, Catherine. “The Art of Equivocation.” Atlanta Journal—Constitution, April 10, p. 43.
Caroli, Flavio. “ Magico primario.” Interarte 23, April, pp. 5 – 27
Jones, Ron. “Figurative Images: Aspects of Recent Art.” Art Papers, May /June, p. 18.
Nilson, Lisbet. “The Sorceress of Soho.” Metropolitan Home, June, pp. 47 – 52
Schjedahl, Peter. “King Curator.” Village Voice, July 20, p. 37.
Price, Katherine. “Arts Usa.” Nuovi Argomenti, August / September.
Wohlfert, Whilborg, Lee. “Manhattans’s Vanguard Art Dealers,” Town and Country,September, p. 251
Silverthorne , Jeanne. “Troy Brauntuch at Mary Boone.” Artforum International, September, p. 76.
Wolf, Deborah. “Mary Boone.” Avenue, October, pp. 40 – 47.
Ponti, Lisa. “Documenta 7.” Domus, October, pp. 67 – 74.
Colacello, Bob. “Out.” Interview, November, pp. 93 – 94.
Ponti, Lisa. “Mary Boone and the Past, the Present and the Future.”
Domus, November, pp. 72 – 73.
Caroli, Flavio. Magico primario. Milan: Fabbri 1981
William Zimmer," American and Italian New Wave Artists"Annina Nosei Nosei Gallery,"
Soho Weekly News Jan.7
Ka Larson Kay Larson “Old and New Image Makers”New York Magazine, Jan 19
Sundell, Nina. “New Talent / New York.” Dialogue, January / February Tatransky, “The Opening of Metro Pictures." Flash Art, January / February
Smith, Roberts. “Spacewalk.” Village Voice, October 2, p. 77.
Deitch, Jeffery. “Who has the Powwer.” Flash Art, October / November, pp. 46 – 47.
Blau, Douglas. “Troy Brauntuch,” Flaash Art October / November, p. 53.
Ginz, Claude. “Une Saison a New York.” Artistes, Wiinter, pp. 27 – 35
Rickey, Carrie, “Naïve Nouveau and its Malcontents.” Flash Art, Summer.
Owens, Craig. “The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theory of Post –Modernism,”October, Spring / Fall
Simon, Joan. “Double Takes.” Art in America, October.
Shore, Michael. “Punk Rocks the Art World.” Art News, November.
Zimmer, William. “Exhibition at Metro Pictures.” Soho Weekly News, November 26.

1979 Crimp, Douglas. “About Pictures.” Flash Art, March / April.
Lawson, Thomas. “The Uses of Representation: Making some Distinctions,” Flash Art, March / April.
Crimp Douglas. “Pictures.” October, Spring.
Zimmer, William. “Art goes to the Rock World Fire.” Soho Weekly News, September 27.

1978 Henry, Gerrit. “Pictures.” Art News, January.
Lawson, Thomas. “Pictures and Artists Space.” Art in America, January / February.
Andrews, Karen. “Pictures at an Exhibition.” Oberlin Review, March 3.
Frank, Peter. “Pictures and Meaning.” Artweek, April 29

1977 Zimmer, William. “Pictures and Statement.” Soho Weekly News, October 6.
Tratansky, Valentin. “Piictures.” Arts, December


1999 Joan Mitchell Foundation Grant
1981-83 National Endowment for the Arts


Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, Texas
The Contemporary Arts Museum, Los Angeles
Israel Museum, New York
Lannan Foundation, Los Angeles
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Frederick Weisman Art Foundation, Los Angeles
Hawaii Contemporary Arts Museum, Honolulu
The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C
Jewish Museum, Berlin, Germany
Microsoft Art Collection
San Diego Contemporary Arts Museum, San Diego
UBS Collection


2005 Israel Museum, New York
“Untitled (Mickey Tail 1)”, 2005, conte on cotton, 40″×50″

2000 Museum of Modern Art, New York, (Drawing collection):
“Untitled” (Corn), 2000, graphite on oriental paper, 26″×38″

1998 Microsoft Art Collection, “Untitled” (Fence), 1998.